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中美商务谈判中的文化因素研究_快乐赛车
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中美商务谈判中的文化因素研究_快乐赛车

A Study of the Cultural Factors in Sino-American Business Negotiation

摘要

随着经济全球化的深入发展,中美经济相互依存度不断提高。中美两国作为世界的两大经济大国,在经济和贸易领域上有着长期合作。中美商务谈判对于中美经济往来至关重要。然而,由于文化背景差异,不同谈判者会有不同的思维方式、谈话风格和做事方法。中美两国之间存在巨大的文化差异,因而两国在谈判过程中很可能出现文化冲突,甚至是不必要的误解。因此本文旨在从文化角度研究中美商务谈判。本文首先介绍中美两国跨文化快乐赛车的现状,并探讨了研究文化因素对中美商务谈判活动的重要性,接着指出文化差异是导致商务谈判失败的主要因素之一。同时,作者从霍夫斯塔德的文化维度理论角度和霍尔的文化语境理论角度出发分析了对中美商务谈判产生影响的文化因素。作者希望能通过本文减少中美商务谈判中的文化差异给谈判带来的困难,从而促进两国经贸合作。

关键词: 中美商务谈判;文化差异;跨文化快乐赛车

Abstract

快乐赛车With the deepening development of economic globalization, Chinese and the US economies are increasingly dependent on each other. The two economic giants of the world —China and the United States —are enjoying a long-term relationship in the field of economy and trade. Sino-American business negotiation is essential for Sino-American business relationship. However, owing to different cultural backgrounds, different negotiators have different ways of thinking, conversation styles and ways of doing thing, the huge cultural differences between the two countries may give rise to potential cultural clash and unnecessary misunderstandings during the negotiation process. That’s why this paper is intended to study Sino-American business negotiation from cultural perspective. This article first introduces the current situation of cross-cultural communication between China and United States and presents the importance of research into influences of cultural factors on Sino-America business negotiation, then it points out that cultural difference is one of the major reasons causing the failure of business negotiation. Meanwhile, the author analyzes cultural factors influencing business negotiation from the perspective of Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory and Edward Hall’s cultural context theory. It is hoped that difficulties of cultural differences on Sino-America business negotiation be reduced and bilateral economic and trade cooperation be promoted.

Key words: Sino-America business negotiation; cultural difference; cross-cultural communication

Contents

Acknowledgements i

快乐赛车Abstract & Key words in English ii

快乐赛车Abstract & Key words in Chinese iii

快乐赛车Introduction 1

1. Literature Review 1

快乐赛车1.1 Cultures 1

快乐赛车1.1.1 Typical cultural schools in China 2

快乐赛车1.1.2 Typical cultural schools in America 3

1.1.3 Conflicts: the result of different cultures’ interaction 4

1.2 Business negotiation 5

1.3 International business negotiation 5

快乐赛车1.3.1 Stages of international business negotiation 5

快乐赛车1.3.2 Empirical basis of international business negotiation 6

1.3.3 Factors influencing international business negotiation 7

1.4 Research on intercultural communication in China 8

1.5 Research on intercultural communication in America 8

2. Cultural influences on international business negotiation from the perspective of Hofstede’s theories 9

快乐赛车2.1 Introduction of Hofstede’s theories of culture 9

2.2 Application of Hofstede’s theories in actual Sino-American business negotiation 10

2.2.1 Individualism & collectivism 10

快乐赛车2.2.2 Power distance 11

2.2.3 Uncertainty avoidance 11

2.2.4 Short-term and long-term orientation 12

快乐赛车3. Cultural influences on international business negotiation from the perspective of Edward Hall’s theories 12

3.1 Mono-chronic use of time and poly-chronic use of time 12

3.2 Differences in time arrangement between China and America 13

3.2.1 Employing time to establish good relationship 13

3.2.2 Different time patterns in concession-making 14

3.2.3 A continuous vs. discontinuous view of time at the end of the negotiation 14

3.3 Edward Hall’s theories of context in business negotiation 14

3.3.1 High-context’s preference for indirectness & low-context’s preference for directness 15

快乐赛车3.3.2 High-context’s preference for in-group relationship & low-context’s lacking in such preference 15

3.3.3 High-context’s preference for contract & low-context’s preference for trust 16

快乐赛车4. Suggestions for Sino-American business negotiation 17

快乐赛车4.1 Cultivating cultural awareness and sensitivity 17

4.2 Learning about cultural adaptation 18

快乐赛车4.3 Improving communicative competence 18

4.4 Making sufficient preparations 18

快乐赛车Conclusion 19

Notes 20

快乐赛车References 21


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